Diversity Headlines

Richard Rodriguez Talks About the American Dream for Immigrants

Colorlines - Mon, 09/15/2014 - 08:18
Richard Rodriguez Talks About the American Dream for Immigrants

In the aftermath of 9/11, noted Latino essayist Richard Rodriguez became fascinated by how people's spiritual relationships turn deadly. Last year he published "Darling: A Spiritual Autobiography," a book that explores his own complex relationship with religion. And last week, on the 13th anniversary of 9/11, he spoke with Sandy Close, New America Media's executive editor, about hope, politics and immigration in America. 

If there's a new American Dream, how does it differ from the traditional one?

The immigrant Dream, the foreign Dream, is as gaudy, as magnificent and as romantic and impractical as it always was: "I will go to America and become a millionaire, and marry a blonde woman, and have children who are six feet tall." That Dream is still alive.

Those who were born in America, including children and grandchildren of immigrants, have diminished our Dream. Some of us have become stuck. We work two jobs, we rent an apartment, we don't have a car, we see no movement in our lives. What's the American Dream to us? 

Some Americans downgrade our vision of the Dream out of good motives. We don't want a big car that guzzles gas, we want a small car, an electric car. We don't want a huge American Dream because we realize how much it costs [n]ature. We're downgrading our version of the American Dream and we resent those who come to America with their gaudy ambition.

Read more at New American Media

Categories: Diversity Headlines

Scots Prepare for Referendum, Obamacare's New Obstacles, 'Swatting' Rival Gamers

Colorlines - Mon, 09/15/2014 - 07:55
Scots Prepare for Referendum, Obamacare's New Obstacles, 'Swatting' Rival Gamers

Here's what I'm reading up on this morning: 

Categories: Diversity Headlines

'My Feminism Starts 300 Years Ago'

Colorlines - Mon, 09/15/2014 - 05:35
'My Feminism Starts 300 Years Ago'

"A lot of corporate capitalist feminism begins with the idea that feminism is always starting on the day the person discovered feminism," Tressie McMillan Cottom said to great laughter from an auditorium comprised mainly of white women this past Saturday. The event: Baffler magazine's all-day conference, Feminism for What? Equality in the Workplace After ["]Lean In<["]. "[But] my feminism can't start when you discover it, I need mine to start 300 years ago." Cottom's speech like her writing is quick-and-tart wrapped in personable Southern charm. Audience disarmed, she then goes on to explain that her feminist talking points are wealth not income, followed closely by economic reparations for African-Americans and dismantling the for profit prison complex. After, Colorlines sat with Cottom, a Panther baby and Ph.D. student in sociology at Emory University to talk about the women and work that inform her feminism. While Cottom shared a class analysis with today's multi-generational crowd she had been clear: beginning the conversation at "Lean In" wasn't so much uninteresting as extraordinarily irrelevant to the black and brown women she works for.

How do you connect today's feminism and work conversation around Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg's "Lean In"thesis with the women--mainly moms, low-wage earners and students of color--whom you center in your research?

I couldn't go tell the overwhelmingly black and brown women that I interview in the course of my research what this conference seems to think feminism is. I really couldn't.

Explain what you mean.

The typical woman I talk to is doing shift work. In places like Atlanta that usually means at a bank so it has a slightly higher status but, it's still shift work. She's working from 2 p.m. to 11 p.m. Tuesday through Saturday, usually customer service. Then she's going over to [for profit university] Strayer twice a week trying to get a degree. She's hoping it'll lead to her becoming a manager, which comes with a more stable schedule. The women I work for, they're hustlin'--that's how they describe it. So if I go and tell them something like, "You should lean in." or, "I think Sheryl Sandberg reinvigorates the policy conversation around the work-life balance," these women would laugh me out the room. What do you mean work-life balance?! It ain't no work-life balance. It's work. All of it is work! Their man is work. Their kids are work. Work is work. They're not having it. But! Those are also the women whom I think are living feminism in ways that we don't talk about.

Or ways that they don't talk about either?

That's right. They very rarely call it feminism. But they'll say things like, they're starting to make different types of decisions around partners for instance. They need somebody who's willing to take care of those kids because they've just worked 10 hours and are now getting ready to work four more hours at school. So they can't mess with those boys they used to date. They need somebody who's a little more invested in helping them do that. So this changes how they look at mating and it does exert some pressure on the dudes. It is changing those [relationship] dynamics but not in ways we always honor or respect as feminist.

You mentioned the recent fast-food strikes earlier. You and your mom went down to a McDonald's in Charlotte and handed out food and water to the protesting workers. Why?

We've always done stuff like that! My mom was a member of the Black Panther Party in Winston-Salem and she grew up in the model of organizing where being a witness was an active thing to do. [That Thursday,] I was driving past, saw the folks out at McDonald's and so I went home, got mom and we just dropped back [around]. Particularly with everything we just watched in Ferguson, you know what the state and the police state is capable of and I remember thinking, "The people who decided to show up and witness the violence in Ferguson were very important." So, just in case anything happened mom and I thought, "We'd be there."

Help put the fast food worker movement into context. How do you understand it?

We've always had this idea of who did that type of work and it was always thought to be a temporary stopgap. Maybe you did it as a teenager or, if you were older then it was to supplement social security. But increasingly this is the work people are doing for the long haul. It's not a stopgap. And so if that's what they're going to be doing, then we need a basement beneath it. We need a minimally acceptable quality of life attached to those jobs. And I think we all are starting to wake up to something that some policy folks and others have said for a while: we're seeing a permanent structural change in how we live and work.

It's been two years of protest. How do the fast-food worker strikes fit into policy conversations today?

Not the way I'd like for it to fit. I think the policy line is still that most of these workers are teenagers or young people and that this is their first stepping stone job. But this flies entirely in the face of the empirical evidence. People are supporting families on these jobs. And the jobs benefit from the extent to which the state subsidizes that labor. So they've got to start paying into that contract. We don't have many social contracts left but the few that we have you cannot depend on the state to subsidize low wages and then not re-invest in upgrading the quality of those jobs. Unfortunately, the most vulnerable workers are the ones who have to have that conversation--but look this is a middle class labor problem, too. It just hasn't gotten to us yet. And I don't think we understand that.

Give me an example.

There's not much difference to me between the adjunct crisis in higher education and the labor conversations that fast food and other low-wage workers are having. It's just that we like to see ourselves as different. We like to see our destinies as different. But they're the same thing.

In your public writing, you're often in dialogue with middle and upper middle class white women and your research centers low-income women of color. Do you think of yourself as a bridge between the two?

Hmm, that's interesting. I'm always very sensitive about this as I don't want to translate the women that I think I work for. When your life becomes my data, I have some responsibility to you. I don't want to translate them for the women who're at this conference today. If I was going to be a bridge I would much rather translate these women to them. Often when you translate people with less power to people who have it, you can end up compounding how marginalized some of those women are. I can see going back and translating high theory and economic policy to the women I interview however. Nothing makes me happier than that.

I read a guest post recently on Mark Anthony Neal's blog that suggested black feminists tie feminist solidarity to reparations. What do you think about that?

Well that's what I was trying to put on the table in there today. But I got stuck at universal basic income and I was like, "I think that's as radical as we could go!" But this is what I meant about an affirmative feminism. Feminism wants to start today. Always. Even the historian in there said, Well feminism started in 1970--and I almost fell out the chair. Like, really? I've got black feminists organizing in 1889. But even when we're talking historical terms we're not dealing with history. And I think that an affirmative feminism would be precisely that. That says to me, "Don't talk to me about what I'm supposed to do from today on, start talking about what has been done to me." Then economic reparations becomes a fundamentally feminist policy because it's about the redistribution of wealth primarily to black women.

Would you make support for reparations a precondition for solidarity with white feminists?

You know what? Yes I would. We always give something up in the building of solidarity with majority movements. We always give up the most to get the least amount of return to our commitment to movements. So, yeah.

Who're your feminist contemporaries whose work is grabbing your attention?

Audrey Watters is one. She tends to talk about how we're being turned into data points, the kinds of private data that can be extracted from you on-line without you knowing it and how that is going to complicate our very notions of what group based movements are going to be able to do. We've relied so heavily on being able to say statistically, we're here--and we can't do that when the data on us is private and they have it and we don't. Also, Sarah Jaffe at In These Times. She's so influenced my thinking of what the Left looks like. I'd given up on that as even a possible idea as a politic for a black woman. But Sarah's re-contextualized that for me.

What are you up to lately?

Writing. I'm writing a book right now about my research around for-profit education.

Tressie McMillan Cottom blogs at some of us are brave.

Categories: Diversity Headlines

Calif. Filipinos Struggling With Promising New Low-Income Care Program

New America Media - Mon, 09/15/2014 - 00:15
 Photo: Anacleto Mendoza, a legal-service client of the Filipino American Services Group, discussed his difficulty with the new program’s rollout in Los Angeles. (Christian Esteban/Asian Journal)LOS ANGELES – Nearly a half-million Californians–200,000 in Los Angeles County–are experiencing changes in their... Christian Esteban http://publisher.namx.org/mt-cp.cgi?__mode=view&blog_id=19&id=103
Categories: Diversity Headlines

Q&A: What is the American Dream?

New America Media - Sat, 09/13/2014 - 01:20
 Ed. Note: In an interview with NAM Executive Director Sandy Close, noted author and essayist Richard Rodriguez says there now exist two American Dreams: the one "transformative," gaudy even, the other "diminished" and "less ambitious." Rodriguez is the author of... Sandy Close http://publisher.namx.org/mt-cp.cgi?__mode=view&blog_id=19&id=26
Categories: Diversity Headlines

Immigration Reform Stalled, But CA’s ‘Health For All’ Bill on Its Way Back

New America Media - Fri, 09/12/2014 - 14:00
Above: Sen. Ricardo Lara (D - Los Angeles) speaks to a reporter during a briefing on his Health For All bill, which would extend health coverage to undocumented immigrants in California.  LOS ANGELES -- A day before President Obama... Story by Anna Challet/Video by Michael Lozano http://publisher.namx.org/mt-cp.cgi?__mode=view&blog_id=19&id=103
Categories: Diversity Headlines

Policing the Police: A Brief History

Colorlines - Fri, 09/12/2014 - 13:00
 A Brief History

With Ferguson still on the national conscience, ThinkProgress reporter Nicole Flatow looks at how three cities have dealt with their high profile police violence cases--Rodney King in Los Angeles, 1991; Amadou Diallo in New York City, 1999; and Timothy Thomas in Cincinnati, 2001--and whether reforms worked. It's a mixed bag. In New York City after the Diallo reforms, largely considered cosmetic, it appeared that things had worsened. And in Cincinnati, at least for one resident, the Collaborative Agreement implemented after the 2001 unrest helped end the feeling that she lived in a police state

Over at Jacobin, writer Stuart Schrader connects policing to empire-building and cautions against the reforms themselves: "The reform program of imposing rigorous standards of behavior, divisions of labor, and doctrinal guidelines does not subject the police to public scrutiny or oversight but instead insulates them, further enabling rule by discretion."

Reform expert Philip Atiba Goff in a piece by Rinku Sen, publisher of Colorlines, cautions that reforms are incomplete without examining hiring practices as well as key police identities like race and masculinity. He tells Sen, "An officer who feels a need to demonstrate his masculinity may be more likely to use force in general, but particularly against people who threaten his self-concept as a man. If African-Americans are seen as hypermasculine, then the officer will feel more threatened."

Since no one knows how many police shootings occur nationally each year, there are ambitious efforts underway by ordinary citizens to fix that. Learn more about them--and how to help--on Deadspin. Albuquerque, for example, has seen 47 police shootings since 2009 in which 32 people died.

Diallo and Thomas also died at the hands of police officers. King was badly beaten.

(h/t ThinkProgress)

Categories: Diversity Headlines

'Orange is the New Black' Adds Another Black Corrections Officer

Colorlines - Fri, 09/12/2014 - 11:51
'Orange is the New Black' Adds Another Black Corrections Officer

Actress Marsha Stephanie Blake will play Litchfield's new corrections officer in the third season of "Orange is the New Black."

From The Hollywood Reporter:

Details on Blake's character are being kept under lock and key, but she will recur as a new corrections officer on the third season of the Taylor Schilling starrer.

Blake, whose credits include Django Unchained and Girls, joins a cast of fellow commanding officers including Pornstache (Pablo Schreiber), Bennett (Matt McGorry), Caputo (Nick Sandow), Fischer (Lauren Lapkus) and Fig (Alysia Reiner), among others. The latter two were seemingly written out during season two.

The new season's premiere date hasn't been announced. 

Categories: Diversity Headlines

L'Orange's Video With Rapper Blu for 'Need You' is Gorgeous

Colorlines - Fri, 09/12/2014 - 11:50

Producer, poet and musician L'Orange just released a new video with Blu for the track "Need You" from her album "The Orchid Days," which dropped a while back. It's gorgeous and dreary and perfect for a song about love.

Categories: Diversity Headlines

How Citizenship Changed My Life - From College to the Ballot Box

New America Media - Fri, 09/12/2014 - 10:30
Above: Guadalupe Guerrero, 25, speaking at a briefing for ethnic media on the benefits of citizenship at the Los Angeles Public Library in March.One year after becoming U.S. citizens, many new Americans say citizenship has changed their lives for the better... Elena Shore http://publisher.namx.org/mt-cp.cgi?__mode=view&blog_id=19&id=7
Categories: Diversity Headlines

Watch These Oakland Women Turf Battle [VIDEO]

Colorlines - Fri, 09/12/2014 - 09:54

Hailing from Oakland, California, turfing--and, most recently, finger tutting--has largely associated with men. But, as KQED reports, a recent battle shows that women can dominate the style, too. 

Categories: Diversity Headlines

CBS Pulled Rihanna's Performance Before Baltimore Ravens Game

Colorlines - Fri, 09/12/2014 - 09:53
CBS Pulled Rihanna's Performance Before Baltimore Ravens Game

It wasn't long ago that Rihanna was the most high-profile victim of domestic violence in America. That fact wasn't lost on CBS, which aired Thursday night's NFL matchup between the Baltimore Ravens and Pittsburgh Steelers, or the millions of fans who tuned in. The network decided against broadcasting the singer's pre-recorded performance before Baltimore's first game since video emerged showing former Ravens running back Ray Rice brutally punch his now-wife, Janay. 

CBS also dropped a comedy segment that was set to air, replacing it with a report about Rice from "CBS This Morning" anchor Norah O'Donnell. "It's important to realize we are not overacting to this story, but it is as big a story as has faced the NFL," CBS Sports chairman Sean McManus told Sports Illustrated. "We thought journalistically and from a tone standpoint, we needed to have the appropriate tone and coverage. A lot of the production elements we wanted in the show are being eliminated because of time or tone."

(h/t Mashable and Bustle)

Categories: Diversity Headlines

Sportscaster James Brown Confronts Men on Violence Against Women

Colorlines - Fri, 09/12/2014 - 09:51

As Deadspin reports, CBS sportscaster James Brown addressed viewers--and men in particular--about violence against women just moments before the Steelers-Ravens game Thursday.

Matthew Henderson posted a quick transcript of Brown's remarks on Twitter:

Here's a quick transcript of James Brown on Thursday Night Football. #NFL #Football @bruce_arthur pic.twitter.com/fEBQyu0pAp

-- Matthew Henderson (@mhenderson95) September 12, 2014
Categories: Diversity Headlines

Female Ravens Fans React to Ray Rice Video and the NFL

Colorlines - Fri, 09/12/2014 - 08:26

Last night was Baltimore's first football game since TMZ released the domestic violence video of Ravens player Ray Rice. One WaPo videographer talked to a handful of women, all longtime Ravens fans, about Rice and the ensuing controversy that could cost the job of NFL commissioner Roger Goodell and is forcing greater scrutiny of the NFL. Check out the mix of opinions in "The ladies of Ravens Nation," including those where the love of football takes over all executive brain function. Then be sure to check out our gender columnist Miriam Zoila Pérez's latest. She talks to longtime activists about the complicated relationship that women of color have with the now 20-year-old Violence Against Women Act (VAWA).

(h/t Washington Post)

Categories: Diversity Headlines

Watch: Thundercat's New Video for 'Tron Song'

Colorlines - Fri, 09/12/2014 - 07:16

Stephen Bruner, the musician better known as Thundercat, is back with a new video for the track "Tron Song." The experimental bassist's clip is super weird. But it's Friday, so why not?

(h/t Potholes in the Blog)

Categories: Diversity Headlines

Yahoo! Says Gov Threatened Fines for User Data, Che Joins SNL, Meditation for Migraines

Colorlines - Fri, 09/12/2014 - 06:58
Yahoo! Says Gov Threatened Fines for User Data, Che Joins SNL, Meditation for Migraines

Here's what I'm reading up on this morning: 

  • Oscar Pistorius is found guilty of negligent killing and could serve up to 15 years in jail. 
  • Authorities in Pakistan arrest 10 people believed to have carried out the shooting attack against Malala Yousafzai in 2012.
  • Documents say that the Bush Administration threatened Yahoo! with a $250,000-per-day fine if it didn't hand over user data. That's a nearly $2 million every week!
  • A teen serving life for killing three Ohio schoolmates is captured after a failed prison escape. 
  • Facebook wants your feedback about why you don't like those ads on your feed. Probably to give you more ads. 
Categories: Diversity Headlines

Seven Important Facts About the Violence Against Women Act at 20

Colorlines - Fri, 09/12/2014 - 06:06
Seven Important Facts About the Violence Against Women Act at 20

The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) celebrates its 20th anniversary tomorrow, Saturday 13. In honor of that milestone, I talked with two women of color activists who've worked with VAWA--one primarily in the two decades leading up to its 1994 passage, and the other in the 20 years since. Loretta Ross, former director of the Women of Color Reproductive Justice Collective, was heavily involved in the early push for legislation in the 1970s. Tonya Lovelace, director of the Women of Color Network, joined the anti-violence against women movement in 1995. Here are seven vital facts to consider as VAWA enters its third decade.

1. Women of color advocated for VAWA long before it passed.

Vice President Joseph Biden gets most of the credit for pushing VAWA to passage in 1994, when he was a senator. But Ross says women of color began fighting for a law decades before. About their motivations, she says: "I was part of teams of women who started in the 1970s because we thought that more resources needed to be brought to our rape crisis centers," she says. Ross was involved in this early advocacy when she worked with the Washington D.C. Rape Crisis Center, the only site at the time run by African-American women. This rape crisis center received limited funding from the D.C. City Council and private foundations.

2. Many critique VAWA for increasing the criminalization of communities of color.

Many in the gender-based violence movement are ambivalent about VAWA. Critiques abound, but a major one centers on how VAWA may be contributing to the increased policing and incarceration of men of color. Both of the activists I interviewed talked about their mixed feelings about the law because of this aspect. VAWA did indeed open the door for increased involvement by law enforcement in domestic violence cases, allowing them to arrest presumed perpetrators of violence based on probable cause. Lovelace's first job in the field was VAWA-funded under "grants to encourage arrest." She says she wasn't literally encouraging arrest, but she was working primarily with police, prosecutors and judges."I think that, like anybody else, we wanted to ensure women's safety, [even] if that meant removing him from the home and putting him in jail to get her safe," says Lovelace. 

3. Women of color working to pass VAWA predicted an increase in the policing of people of color, but they fought for it anyway.

The critique that VAWA leads to the increased criminalization of people of color did not come only in hindsight. "We knew [VAWA] was not without its problems with increased state engagement," says Ross. "We knew that it would have backlash for communities of color." Lovelace agrees: "I think women of color have always stood in that place with mixed feelings and emotions around the work around that. It's not like we didn't know these systems were problematic." But, as often happens with policy change, VAWA consisted of many compromises made in the hope of legitimizing violence against women as a serious and illegal act and bringing in a new, major funding source for anti-violence efforts.

4. Increased policing has led to women survivors being arrested as well.

Another unintended consequence of the law that both Ross and Lovelace mentioned is victims of violence--particularly women of color--being arrested when police can't determine the aggressor in an incident.

"Police, in their attempt to be evenhanded and gender neutral, were arresting the women in equal numbers as the men," says Ross.

"[Women of color are] not being perceived as victims," Lovelace adds. "They are perceived as violent or as the primary aggressor in a situation." Lovelace describes needing to think creatively about who counted as survivor because of this phenomenon: "I used to run a support group for African-American survivors where I was able to have women who'd been arrested [when] it was clear that she'd experienced violence."

5. Protections for women of color, immigrants and LGBT people have increased since the 1994 passage of VAWA.

A number of provisions have been added to VAWA that address the specific needs of women of color, immigrants and LGBT people. This includes a 2013 provision giving Tribal Nations the right to prosecute non-Tribal members who commit acts of violence on Tribal land. This provision, along with the increase of protections for immigrants and LGBT people, caused an incredible stand-off in Congress. Republicans allowed the Act to lapse in 2011, creating a year- and-a-half gap before the bill was finally reauthorized. After two years, Republicans gave in to pressure and allowed it to pass. Women of color in the anti-violence movement pushed these amendments strongly, says Lovelace, and these changes represent incremental steps to improving the law.

6. Despite a disproportionate amount of violence in communities of color, the women's anti-violence movement is predominantly white-led.

While women of color are disproportionately impacted by gender-based violence, people in the movement working to address this problem don't look like them. "We continue to have a movement where the majority of the leadership is white," says Lovelace. "And you still have largely white staffs serving largely communities of color."

Race disparities are not unique to the anti-violence movement butLovelace says they can hinder service provision to survivors of color. "It's truly problematic because issues of culture, [and missing] expertise, [mean] many of the cultural challenges that are related to the violence are not being recognized or understood," she says.

A 2011 survey conducted by the Women of Color Network called "Women of Color Leadership: A Look at the Experiences of Women of Color Executives in the Anti-Violence Against Women's Movement" found that the vast majority of women of color reported racially motivated stereotyping in the workplace. Even 81 percent of white respondents reported witnessing situations where bias against women of color was at play in their organizations. Seventy percent of those surveyed also said that the leadership of their organizations (including the boards of directors) were primarily white.

7. VAWA's success depends on who you ask.

Whether or not we can consider VAWA a success depends entirely on our perceptions and definition of it. For example, it's unclear whether VAWA has actually decreased violence. The White House released a report in honor of the 20th anniversary that correlates VAWA with reduced rates of intimate partner violence. In a section titled "20 Years of Progress," the report makes the case for success: "Yearly domestic violence rates dropped dramatically by 64 [percent] from 1993 to 2010. Between 1993 and 2012, the number of individuals killed by an intimate partner declined 26 [percent] for women and 48 [percent] for men."

Some question the role of VAWA in these decreases because they mirror a similar trend in national crime statistics overall. And Ross is skeptical of the idea that we can claim a reduction in intimate partner violence at all, pointing out that these statistics are based on voluntary reporting by police precincts. "All we know is there is a decrease in the voluntary reporting of those departments," says Ross. "That's the best you can say about those statistics."

But based on the original goals laid out by Ross--bringing new funding to anti-rape and -violence organizations and shifting perceptions of violence against women--we could say yes, VAWA has been successful. Hundreds of millions of dollars in new subsidies have gone to violence prevention projects around the country. And  in these past two decades,domestic violence against women is widely seen as unacceptable. "We've made more women know that they don't have to take it," says Ross. "They don't have to be victimized."

Categories: Diversity Headlines

Six Reasons Why Hmong Americans Should Vote This Year

New America Media - Fri, 09/12/2014 - 01:40
 Historically, the Hmong community has had one of the lowest voter turnouts, but with outreach campaigns there have been considerable advances made in increasing a Hmong voting bloc in Minnesota.While Hmong Americans have faced cultural perceptions that voting makes no... Tiffany Vang http://publisher.namx.org/mt-cp.cgi?__mode=view&blog_id=19&id=103
Categories: Diversity Headlines

Low-Income Calif. Care Program Faces Language, Cultural Barriers

New America Media - Fri, 09/12/2014 - 01:25
ALHAMBRA, Calif. – California has begun launching a three-year pilot program aimed at improving health care options to residents in Los Angeles and other counties, who qualify for both state and federally subsidized health care. But potential applicants to Cal... Kyle Garcia http://publisher.namx.org/mt-cp.cgi?__mode=view&blog_id=19&id=103
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New America Media - Thu, 09/11/2014 - 16:49
English??????????·?????(Janet Napolitano)?9?4??????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??2013?9?30?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????“?????????????????????????????????????????????” “??????????????????????????????????????????” ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????112??????????????????12????????San Joaquin Valley???????Sierra foothills???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????“???????????????????????????????????????????????????” ??????????????????????????“?????Blue and Gold Opportunity Plan?”??????????????????????????????????Porterville College????????????Val Garcia??? “???????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?” ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????UC Merced? ???????????????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????(Columbia College)????????????Zachary Calabrese??“???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????” ???????????????????????????“???????”???????????????????... Nicole Freeling http://publisher.namx.org/mt-cp.cgi?__mode=view&blog_id=19&id=103
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