Education Resources

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January 31, 2011

Education is a basic building block of families, communities and societies. More than 25 years after Brown v. Board of Education integrated the public schools, schools remain segregated. Studies establish that segregation perpetuates racial inequality. Teachers assigned to minority schools are more
likely to be inexperienced or teaching outside their fields of expertise. Schools serving minority communities receive less financing and fewer schools are constructed in minority communities. Black and brown children are disciplined more harshly and frequently for the same offenses as white children. In an example of a subset of structural racism, experts have identified the schoolyard to prisonyard pipeline, documenting how zero tolerance policies in schools are pushing minority students out of the classroom, the school house and into jails and prisons.

Links to additional resources:

The Color of Discipline, Russell Skiba, 2000

Racial Profiling and Punishment in U.S Public Schools, Applied Research Center, 2001

A Violent Education finds racial disparity in corporal punishment, Human Rights Watch, ACLU, 2008

Test, Punish and Push Out, How “Zero Tolerance” and High Stakes Testing Funnel Youth Into the School To Prison Pipeline, Advancement Project, 2010

Education on Lockdown: The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track, Executive Summary, Advancement Project, 2005

Derailed: The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track, Advancement Project, 2003

Opportunities Suspended: The Devastating Consequences of Zero-Tolerance and School Discipline, Advancement Project and the Civil Rights Project Harvard University, 2000, summary with link to full report

School Discipline and the Pushout Problem Fact Sheet, Dignity in Schools Campaign, 2010,

The State of America’s Children 2010, Key Facts (minority children disproportionately affected adversely) Children’s Defense Fund

Racial Disparities and Discrimination in Education: What do we know, How do we know it and What do we need to know, George Farkas, 2002

The Road to Dropping Out, The Children’s Defense Fund, 2004

Educational Apartheid in the United States, Children’s Defense Fund’s Marian Wright Edelman, 2004 Congressional Testimony

Racial Disparities in Education Finance, Urban Institute, 2008

How Within-District Spending Inequities Help Some Schools Fail, Marguerite Roza and Paul Hill, abstract, 2004

Ensuring Equal Opportunity in Public Education: How Local School District Funding Practices Hurt Disadvantaged Students and What Federal Policy Can Do About It, Center for American Progress, 2008

Racial Disparities in Education finance: Going Beyond Equal Revenues, Tax Policy Center, 2008

California’s Hidden Teacher Spending Gap: How State and District Budgeting Practices Shortchange Poor and Minority Students and Their Schools. Education Trust-West, 2005

Growth and Disparity: A Decade of U.S. Public School Construction 1995- 2004, Education Law Center, 2006

Why Segregation Matters: Poverty and Educational Inequality. The Civil Rights Project , 2005 Summary with link to full report

Denver Public Schools: Re-segregation ,Latino Style, The Civil Rights Project, 2006 Summary with link to full report

Race in American Public Schools: Rapidly Re-segregating School Districts, The Civil Rights Project , 2002. Summary with link to full report

Racial Transformation and the Changing Nature of Segregation, The Civil Rights Project, 2006

Who Teaches Whom? Race and the Distribution of Novice Teachers, Economics of Education Review, 2005, abstract

Enough To Do The Job? (minority schools with more inexperienced teachers) Education Trust- West, 2006

Too Little Thought Too Little Action (minority schools and teacher experience) Education Trust- West, 2006

The Segregation of American Teachers, The Civil Rights Project, 2006
Summary with link to full report

Student Demographics, Teacher Sorting and Teacher Quality (teachers choose school according to students’ race) Science Daily article

C. Kirabo Jackson, Journal of Labor Economics, 2009 Abstract

Private School Racial Enrollments and Segregation, The Civil Rights Project, 2006, Summary with link to full report

Higher Education and the Color Line, The Civil Rights Project, 2005, Summary

Percent Plans in College Admissions: A Comparative Analysis of Three State’s Experiences, The Civil Rights Project, 2003
Summary with link to full report

The Dropout/Graduation Crisis Among American Indian and Alaska Native Students, The Civil Rights Project and Proyecto Derechos Civiles at UCLA, 2010 Summary -

Full Report-

Education Disparities Towards Solutions

Racial Justice Program, ACLU

Stop The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track, Advancement Project

Looking To The Future: Voluntary K-12 School Integration, NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, Civil Rights Project, Center for the Study of Race and Law at the University of Virginia School of Law, 2005.
Summary and link to the full report

Education Disparities Sources

Gary Orfield, professor of education, law, political science and urban planning, University of California at Los Angeles (segregation, discipline)

Russell Skiba, professor counseling and educational psychology, Indiana University (discipline)

Marguerite Roza, Senior Fellow Brookings Institute (school finance)


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